Overview of the Upright net impact model

This page introduces key algorithms used to quantify net impact.

The Upright net impact model consists of two main parts: the macromodel, and the company model. The primary output of the Upright net impact model is net impact. In addition, it also produces UN SDG, EU taxonomy, EU SFDR Principal Adverse Impact (PAI), and CSRD DMA metrics.


The macromodel integrates information from a variety of sources to produce estimates of the impact of all products and services.

Input data

The main data source used by the macromodel is a database of 200M+ scientific articles. Other data sources include databases from the World Bank, IMF, WHO, OECD, Eurostat, IPCC, CDC, USDA, IHME, and others.

When little quantitative data is available, the Upright net impact model relies mostly on the results of Upright's proprietary NLP deep learning algorithm that reads causal statements from hundreds of millions of scientific articles. When reliable, readily available quantitative data is available, the Upright net impact model puts a greater weight on this data.


The macromodel consists of three major algorithms:

pageExtraction of causal links from scientific literaturepageGeneralization of scientific knowledgepageAllocation of impact across value chains

Company model

The company model combines the information produced by the macromodel with information on specific companies, most importantly information on what those companies are doing (i.e. what their products and services are) to produce an estimate of the impact of each company.

pageEstimation of company product mixes

Granularity of products and services

Upright's models the impact of companies primarily through their products and services. For this to work well, the products and services must be modelled with sufficiently high granularity; the design principle is that any two products that have different impacts must be represented as two different products.

Below are examples of product labels used to model some well-known companies (click to expand)

Products of Siemens

Industrial automation control systems, Automation engineering services, Systems engineering services, Linear motors, Industrial energy management systems, Enterprise systems integration consulting, Voltage converters, Air quality monitoring equipment, Ultrasound machines, Surgical x-ray machines, MRI machines, Medical laboratory automation systems, Medical imaging software, Medical image analysis software, Mammography machines, Management consulting for medical care, Hematology analyzers, Diagnostics software, CT scanners, Private clinical drug testing, Chest x-ray machines, Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices, Blood gas monitors, Biochemical assay kits, Electric trams, Metro trains, Electric locomotive engines, Electric trains, Traffic management software, Train HVAC systems, Train bogies, Railway vehicle engineering services for electric railway vehicles, Railroad traction power supplies, Railway vehicle repair and maintenance, Railroad cars, Railroad car parts, Management consulting for the transportation industry, Hybrid locomotive engines, Smart electricity grid software, Process analytics software, Product lifecycle management

Products for GE

Corporate credit granting, Gas turbines, Wind turbines, Wind turbine generators, Wind turbine gear boxes, Wind turbine maintenance, Maintenance engineering services for wind turbines, Real time information software, Repair and maintenance services of gas turbines, Management consulting for the energy industry, High-voltage capacitors, Energy efficiency consulting, Digital design consulting, Data science consulting, Smart electricity grid software, Distributed energy resources management software, Asset performance management software, Medical x-ray machines, X-ray imaging software, Ultrasound machines, Resuscitators, Nuclear medicine imaging scanners, MRI imaging software, MRI machines, Medical laboratory management software, Medical image enhancement software, Medical image analysis software, Medical ventilators, Medical alarm services, Health care management software, EEG monitors, ECG monitors, Computerized clinical decision support software, Contrast agents (V08), Repair, maintenance and installation of medical supplies and appliances, Anaesthetic machines, Military power supply systems, Military aircraft repair, Military aircraft engines, Aircraft jet engines, Aviation fleet management software, Aircraft wiring systems, Aircraft turboprop engines, Aircraft servicing, Air navigation software, Airplane inspection and maintenance, Aircraft control software, Air force command and control systems, Cloud infrastructure services, Electric motors, Cybersecurity management systems, Cybersecurity services, Cybersecurity assessment software, Selective laser melting machines, Process outsourcing services, Renovation of nuclear power plants, Thermal power turbines, Thermal power boilers, Steam generators, Power transformers, Process controllers, Nuclear waste disposal engineering, Nuclear fuel cycle engineering, Nuclear fuel handling services, Nuclear power engineering services, Nuclear decommissioning engineering, Nuclear power plant maintenance, Nuclear fuels, Natural gas generators, Modernisation of nuclear power plants, Modernisation of fossil fuel power plants, Diesel generators, Seafloor mapping services, Drilling rig auditing services, Plug and abandon engineering, Oil exploration services, Petroleum reservoir engineering, Oil refining equipment, Oil wellheads, Oil terminals, Oil production packers, Oil drilling risers, Oil pipes, Oil and gas industry chemicals, Offshore surveying services, Offshore oil rig engineering services, Oil drilling engineering services, Natural gas transfer pumps, LNG terminals, LNG pipes, Deepwater oil drilling machinery, Centrifugal compressors, Pelton turbines, Modernisation of hydropower plants, Kaplan turbines, Hydropower plant manifold systems, Hydropower plant penstocks, Francis turbines, Bulb turbines

Products for Pfizer

Covid-19 vaccines, Apixaban, Palbociclib, Pneumococcal vaccines, Preclinical research services for physical health, Clinical research services for cancer, Clinical research services for genetic diseases, Clinical research services for deficiency diseases, Clinical research services for infectious diseases, Glucocorticoids, Cephalosporins, Tofacitinib, Enzalutamide, VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Tetracyclines, Linezolid, Azithromycins, Clinical research services for vascular diseases, Clinical research services for the autoimmune system, Clinical research services for diabetes mellitus, Clinical research services for diseases of liver, Sunitinib, Sulfonamides and trimethoprim, Streptogramins, Quinolones, Polymyxins, Penicillins, Metronidazole, Macrolides, Lincosamides, Ertapenem, Etanercept, Daptomycin, Aminoglycosides, Varenicline, Rituximab, Crizotinib, Bosutinib, Tafamidis, Subcutaneous human immunoglobulin, Epoetin alfa, Blood coagulation factors, Bevacizumab, Meningococcal vaccines, Lorlatinib, Heparin, Estrone, Estradiol medication, Epinephrine, Dermatological corticosteroids (D07), Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Fesoterodine, Exemestane, Encorafenib, Dexmedetomidine, Desvenlafaxine, Avelumab, Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors, Infliximab, Zoledronic acid, Zaleplon, Yeast infection medicine, Treatment of wounds and ulcers (D03), Vitamin supplements, Vincristine, Venlafaxine, Vecuronium, Uterotonics, Ulcerative colitis medicine, Tuberculosis medication, Trimethobenzamide, Trifluridine, Triazolam, Trastuzumab, Topotecan, Tolterodine, Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines, Throat medication (R02), Thiazide diuretics, Theophylline, Testosterone medication, Temsirolimus, Tazobactam, Tavaborole, Talazoparib, Tacrolimus, Suxamethonium, Surgical sealant film, Sufentanil, Sterile water, Somatropin medication, Silver sulfadiazine, Sildenafil, SGLT2 inhibitors, Sertraline, Ropivacaine, Rocuronium bromide, Ramipril, Quinapril, Propofol, Promethazine, Prostaglandin E1, Procyclidine, Procainamide, Pregabalin, Potassium supplements, Potassium-sparing diuretics, Piroxicam, Phenytoin, Phenelzine, Pentostatin, Pentazocine, Pegvisomant, Pegfilgrastim, Paromomycin, Paricalcitol, Pancuronium, Pamidronate , Paclitaxel, Oxaprozin, Oxaliplatin, Oral contraceptives, Anti-obesity medication (A08), Norethisterone, Norepinephrine, Nitroglycerin, Naloxone, Nalbuphine, Nafarelin, Mucoactive agents, Morphine, Mitoxantrone, Metoclopramide, Methotrexate, Methimazole, Metaxalone, Mesuximide, Meropenem, Mepivacaine, Meperidine, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Magnesium salts, Lorazepam, Low-ceiling diuretics, Liothyronine, Lidocaine, Levothyroxine, Levetiracetam, Laxatives, Latanoprost, Ketorolac, Ketamine, Irinotecan, Iron chelating agents (V03AC), Indometacin, Idarubicin, Ibutilide, Hydroxyzine, Hydromorphone, HIV medication, Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, High-ceiling diuretics, Herpes medication, Hedgehog pathway inhibitors, Heartburn medication, Gonadotropin medication, Glipizide, Glibenclamide, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Gemfibrozil, Gemcitabine, Gaucher's disease medication, Gabapentin, Fosphenytoin, Fludarabine, Filgrastim, Fentanyl, Fenoldopam, Etomidate, Ethosuximide, Estramustine phosphate, Epirubicin, Enalapril, Electrolyte solutions for blood, Eletriptan, Echothiophate, Doxorubicin, Doxercalciferol, Doxepin, Dopamine, Dopamine agonists, Dofetilide, Docetaxel, Dobutamine, Disopyramide, Diphenhydramine, Diclofenac, Diazepam, Desmopressin, Dermatitis medication, Detoxifying agents for antineoplastic treatment (V03AF), Dacomitinib, Dacarbazine, Cytarabine, Cromoglicic acid, Cough suppressants, Copper supplements, Colestipol, Cisatracurium besilate, Chromium chloride, Chloroprocaine, Celecoxib, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefpodoxime, Cefoxitin, Cefotaxime, Cefoperazone, Cefepime, Cefazolin, Cardiac glycosides, Carboplatin, Calcium supplements, Calcium channel blockers (C08), Buprenorphine, Bupivacaine, Blood plasma proteins, Blood platelets, Blood plasma, Bleomycin, Bivalirudin, Beta blockers (C07), Atropine, Atracurium besilate, Atorvastatin, Argatroban, Antipsychotics, Antipropulsives, Antihypertensives (C02), Antifibrinolytics, Anti-thymocyte globulin, Antiemetics and antinauseants (A04), Amiodarone, Aminophylline, Alprazolam, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, Alfentanil, Afatinib, Adenosine, Absorbable gelatin compressed sponges

Quantification of impacts that are lacking natural units

Some impact categories have natural, absolute, generally-accepted units, while some lack such scales. For example GHG emissions, taxes, and jobs have natural, absolute, generally accepted units, such as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, dollars, or FTEs. Other impact categories, such as Meaning & Joy, do not have similar units.

Internally, the Upright net impact model understands impacts in relative terms, answering questions like "what is this company's share of all GHG emissions created by the private sector", or "what is this company's share of all knowledge created by the private sector". Therefore, the model is able to produce estimates on impacts even in the absence of natural absolute units of measurement.

Producing impact metrics beyond net impact

Upright's net impact model has been primarily built for measuring net impact, which requires comprehensive quantification of all essential impacts a company creates.

Given that the model's internal representation captures impact comprehensively, it has been possible to quickly adapt the model to also produce impact metrics used by other frameworks, such the UN SDGs, the EU taxonomy, EU SFDR Principal Adverse Impacts, or CSRD DMA.

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